How to find all symbolic links junctions on windows drive

TL;DR::cmd (administrator) dir /AL /S C:\ 

Or dir /AL /S C:\ > junctions.txt
To print the output to a file. which is better.

Does Windows have symbolic links like Linux?

Yes. windows has symbolic links also called junctions.  What are junctions? they are simply links to another location on a hard drive or network drive. The operating system and most programs will treat symbolic links like if they were actual folder. This is very useful when dealing with low disk space especially on pricey ssd (although these are getting cheaper) or eMMC on laptops.   Some programs simply insist on storing their data on C application data. but they aren’t essential apps that need to run all the time. Things like Android studio or Netbeans.  you may run one or the other most of the time. but still these programs store large amount of data.

Break down of the command:

DIR:  list files and folders in current working directory or specified one.
AL:   A switch is to display files with specific attributes such as hidden files, directories, read only.   L attribute is for Junctions (Reparse Points)
S:  means to include System files in the results.
>  redirects output to a file.

IE 11 not opening, crashing on Windows 10 after upgrade from windows 7, How to solve

After upgrading from windows 7 to 10,  IE 11 doesn’t open.  I have searched a lot but didn’t find a solution.  One solution suggested it was due to logitech camera’s process monitor. but removing that didn’t solve the problem.   The error log in event viewer was this:

Faulting application name: iexplore.exe, version: 11.0.10240.16412, time stamp: 0x55b99d3f
Faulting module name: ntdll.dll, version: 10.0.10240.16430, time stamp: 0x55c59f92
Exception code: 0xc0000409

After some digging, it turned out it was due to EMET 5.2 Microsoft mitigation service.  seems Microsoft security service breaks its own program.   I uninstalled it, IE 11 worked. I reinstalled it after downloading it again from Microsoft site.  IE 11 stopped working.  I opened EMET notification and went into apps and tested the different checkboxes for IE.  unchecked EAF and leaving other checks worked.

TL;DR;  If you have EMET 5.2 installed, opening EMET, going to APPS -> unchecking EAF in front of Internet Explorer and then OK should make IE work again.  what security implication that means not sure. but Microsoft should fix this soon.


Fail while upgrading to windows 10 from 7, Error 0xC1900101 – 0x40017: Potential fix

I have tried to upgrade windows 10 from 7 for 5 times but failed. It reverts back to windows 7 then displays a window with error in second_boot with number 0xC1900101 – 0x40017 but on my 6th attempt I was successful.
IMG_7619 - Copy


Logs are stored in c:\windows  beside windows bt and ws.   I assume the ones where I could find the reason for failure get deleted once windows recover to previous version.  so if you face a problem tries to copy those logs when it restarts using a linux installation or Live CD.  then search for *.log  in c:\windows   setuperr.log and setupacc.log should have useful information.

Before the last successful attempt. I did the following:

1. sfc /scannow this by the way always discovered errors for me not sure why.

2. updated everything from windows update. except security essentials.

3. From previous failed attempt I already uninstalled Avast. I turned off firewall in my second failed attempt but turned it back on.

4. Unplugged all USBs except keyboard and mouse.

5. Removed some hidden and left over drivers, please see this:

6. Uninstalled some potential troublemaking software particularly media center extenders, Media center is gone from Windows 10. so they can be trouble.
Here are some drivers I removed.
– Old Nvidia display driver. because I switched to AMD.

– HP printer. My HP printer already broken. and I found out so many HP printer driver leftovers something like 10 . I removed their software(s) a lot of them and each one trying to restart the computer anyway. ugh HP

– PC USB driver for OneSeg TV. probably you don’t have this.

– PCI driver for Satellite TV tuner card. this works with Media center so it is useless.

– Removed all usb drivers that are not active. they include several flash drives. also drivers for hard disks I no longer have.
I think what likely fixed the issue is 5 & 6 particularly media center extenders and old drivers for Nvidia. when I installed AMD I didn’t uninstall Nvidia first. but there is good chance that HP with their horrendous software and/or other usb drivers caused the issue. I suggest you try the same but be careful you don’t remove something essential. Make sure to restart after you do all.

Also I tried the install from ISO. but I don’t think related, but my previous 5th attempt was from ISO too.

Finally, there is a slim chance that weird funny thing happened when I logged in to Linux when it restarted after 70% that magically fixed the issue.

Do windows XP users need to wipe out their hard disk to install Windows 7?

According to this article by Walter S. Mossberg (WallStreet Journal) claims that

Unfortunately, XP owners, the biggest body of Windows users, won’t be able to do that. They’ll have to wipe out their hard disks after backing up their files elsewhere, then install Windows 7.

[Emphasize in bold is mine]

But that seems inaccurate, do you need to wipe out your hard disk? Really? I installed Windows 7 RC, and WIndows 7 Beta, in both I didn’t need to wipe out my entire hard disk. Yes you ll have to install everything else, of course, you ll lose your settings, sure. But do you really have to format or wipe out your files on your hard disk? Say a folder named “my projects” in hard disk C, would that have to be wiped out?? I don’t think Microsoft changed radically in Windows 7 final release that make it unable to install unless you format your hard disk.

Beside, Microsoft website say otherwise under “Should I upgrade or perform a custom installation?”:


* A custom installation deletes your programs and settings. Additionally, if you decide to delete or format a partition that contains a version of Windows, all data on the partition, including programs, files, and settings, is permanently deleted.
* However, if there is an existing copy of Windows on the partition you selected, and you do not format or delete the partition, then any user files will be saved to the Windows.old folder on the partition. A dialog box notifies you during a custom installation if files are saved to the Windows.old folder.
* We still recommend that you back up your user files before …

You ll notice in the warnings section, they mention if you have previous windows version that is not vista [such as XP ], the files in windows folder will be copied to windows.old , additionally they say only if you choose to format or make partition , your files will be deleted. Of course, your settings will be deleted when you upgrade, but they didn’t say your files on the hard disk. they recommend however to always backup, but that’s with every other Windows just in case of a mistake or error, or user error.

However, YOU SHOULD ALWAYS BACKUP YOUR FILES, in case of anything, including I might be wrong.

However, with Windows 7 RC and Windows 7 BETA, although I backed up my files in case of a bug might pop up and cause a problem since it was a beta, the files were never wiped out, I didn’t choose to format the partition, and when I installed Windows 7 RC, windows 7 beta folder changed into windows.old, I have it now on my computer in dual boat with Windows XP. Granted this might be different process from upgrading from Windows XP to Windows 7, but I doubt they say different things on their site than what goes on in their release version.

When I emailed the author of the linked article at the top of this post,
I said

I saw on this article of yours:

You say in it “Unfortunately, XP owners, the biggest body of Windows users, won’t be able to do that. They’ll have to wipe out their hard disks after backing up their files elsewhere, then install Windows 7”

but I think this is inaccurate unless the Release version is totally changed in regard to that aspect compared to RC version. I had installed both the RC and the XP version with Windows XP, I didn’t need to wipe out the hard disk, even if you want to upgrade, just backing up the files elsewhere on the hard should be ok, as far as my experience, maybe you can check on that. since my information is based on my experience with Windows 7 RC & Beta, and previous versions of windows.

he responded pretty fast ( I appreciate it):

I stand by what I wrote, which I have not only tested, but discussed repeatedly with Microsoft. In fact, I wrote an entire column about this earlier in the year.

I wonder if Microsoft didn’t notice their post in the FAQ.